More Pediatric Drugs and Notes
COMMON PEDIATRIC DRUGS
Acetaminophen (Tylenol)- Antipyretic. Used for mild pain and fever. Children £12 yr should not receive >5 doses/24 hr. HEPATIC FAILURE, HEPATOTOXICITY. Advise parents or caregivers to check concentrations of liquid preparations. Errors have resulted in serious liver damage.
Albuterol (Ventolin) Used as a bronchodilator in the management of reversible airway obstruction caused by asthma or COPD. SE: nervousness, restlessness, tremor, chest pain, and palpitations. Observe for paradoxical bronchospasm (wheezing). Instruct patient to contact health care professional immediately if shortness of breath is not relieved by medication or is accompanied by diaphoresis, dizziness, palpitations, or chest pain. Advise patient to rinse mouth with water after each inhalation dose to minimize dry mouth.
Aminophylline (Phyllocontin) Bronchodilators. SE: SEIZURES, anxiety, ARRHYTHMIAS, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting. Patients with a history of cardiovascular problems should be monitored for chest pain and ECG changes. Encourage the patient to drink adequate liquids (2000 ml/day minimum) to decrease the viscosity of the airway secretions. Advise patient to avoid OTC cough, cold, or breathing preparations without consulting health care professional.
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) anti-infective. Tx: Skin and skin structure infections, Bone and joint infections, Septicemia. Observe patient for signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis (rash, pruritus, laryngeal edema, wheezing).
Cetirizine (Zyrtec) antihistamine. Advise patient that good oral hygiene, frequent rinsing of mouth with water, and sugarless gum or candy may minimize dry mouth.
Digoxin (Lanoxin) antiarrhythmics. Treatment of CHF. SE: fatigue, ARRHYTHMIAS, bradycardia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting. Monitor apical pulse for 1 full min before administering. Withhold dose <70 bpm in a child, or <90 bpm in an infant. Monitor intake and output ratios and daily weights. In infants and small children, the first symptoms of overdose are usually cardiac arrhythmias.
Ibuprophen (Motrim, Advil) – antipyretics, nonopioid analgesics, NSAID. Patients who have asthma, aspirin-induced allergy, and nasal polyps are at increased risk for developing hypersensitivity reactions. Assess for rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria. Advise patients to take this medication with a full glass of water and to remain in an upright position for 1530 min after administration.
Methylprednisone (Medrol, Solu-Medrol) – antiasthmatics, anti-inflammatories (steroidal). SE: cushingoid appearance (moon face, buffalo hump), increased susceptibility to infection. Monitor intake and output ratios and daily weights. Observe patient for peripheral edema, steady weight gain, rales/crackles, or dyspnea.
Metoclopramide (Reglan) antiemetic. SE: drowsiness, extrapyramidal reactions, restlessness. Assess patient for nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention, and bowel sounds before and after administration. Assess patient for extrapyramidal side effects (parkinsoniandifficulty speaking or swallowing, loss of balance control, pill rolling, mask-like face, shuffling gait, rigidity, tremors; and dystonicmuscle spasms, twisting motions, twitching, inability to move eyes, weakness of arms or legs) periodically throughout course of therapy.
Morphine Sulfate (Morphine) opiod. SE: confusion, sedation, RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION, hypotension. Assess level of consciousness, blood pressure, pulse, and respirations before and periodically during administration.
Phenytoin (Dilantin) – antiarrhythmics (class IB), anticonvulsants. SE: diplopia, nystagmus, hypotension, AGRANULOCYTOSIS, APLASTIC ANEMIA. Observe patient for development of rash.
Ranitidine (Zantac)- antiulcer agents. SE: confusion, ARRHYTHMIAS, AGRANULOCYTOSIS, APLASTIC ANEMIA. Assess patient for epigastric or abdominal pain and frank or occult blood in the stool, emesis, or gastric aspirate.
Zofran (Ondansetron)- antiemetics. Prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. SE: headache, constipation, diarrhea. Given 30 min. before chemotherapy and then 4hr and 8hr later. Assess patient for nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention, and bowel sounds prior to and following administration. Assess patient for extrapyramidal effects (involuntary movements, facial grimacing, rigidity, shuffling walk, trembling of hands) periodically throughout therapy.
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